Last week we had our first biohacking workshop at foam kernow with the London Biohackspace. We had a great turnout and an interesting mix of people. Amber has written a more complete overview of the event.
For more information on yeastograms and how to make your own there is more info here. One of the things we helped with was the construction of a high power UV LED array needed to expose the cultures to radiation. We used 19 LEDs from here powered in 3 chains of 5 and one of 4 at 20V drawing 1.2A. After battling Ohms law for a while we found this site to be immensely useful. We also spent a lot of time on the LED heat sinks and cooling with an old PC fan – but the only problem we had was with the limiting resistors which overheated resulting in a last minute shopping trip to get some 10W rated bigguns. After that everything ran warm rather than hot and could be left overnight. One very important thing to mention with the UV light is to get proper eye protection when working with this, and not just dodgy sunglasses.
Programming music with flotsam – for the first time, it’s truly screen-less livecoding. All the synthesis is done on the Raspberry Pi too (raspbian release in the works). One of the surprising things I find with tangible programming is the enforced scarcity of tokens, having to move them around provides a situation that is good to play around with, in contrast to being able to simply type more stuff into a text document.
The programming language is pretty simple and similar to the yarn sequence language from the weavecoding project. The board layout consist of 4 rows of 8 possible tokens. Each row represents a single l-system rule:
Rule A: o o o o o o o o
Rule B: o o o o o o o o
Rule C: o o o o o o o o
Rule D: o o o o o o o o
The tokens themselves consist of 13 possible values:
a,b,c,d : The 'note on' triggers for 4 synth patches
. : Rest one beat
+,- : Change current pitch
<,> : Change current synth patch set
A,B,C,D : 'Jump to' rule (can be self-referential)
No-token: Ends the current rule
The setup currently runs to a maximum depth of 8 generations – so a rule referring to itself expands 8 times. A single rule ‘A’ such as ‘
+ b A - c A ‘ expands to this sequence (the first 100 symbols of it anyway):
I’m still working on how best to encode musical structures this way, as it needs a bit more expression – something to try is running them in parallel so you can have different sequences at the same time. With a bit more tweaking (and with upcoming hardware improvements) the eventual plan is to use this on some kid’s programming teaching projects.
Time for the next installment in my attempt to document the sometimes opaque world of setting up a company, based on experiences founding Foam Kernow. As before ‘I Am Not A Lawyer’, as they say – so no substitute for proper legal advice here, and any corrections would be most welcome. See part 1 about the motivations for non-profit vs shareholder companies.
Companies in the UK are founded with two documents, the ‘articles of association’ and a ‘memorandum of association’.
The articles of association broadly has two purposes. One is to state why the company has been brought into existence. The other is to strictly define the decision making process for those involved. You don’t generally need to write these documents from scratch, as we are provided with ‘model articles’ from which we can base new companies easily.
The company’s objects
A non-profit needs to describe it’s purpose via ‘objects’. This is important because, as explained in part one, a non-profit is strictly controlled in terms of access to its money. The objects describe what the company assets (e.g. cash) can legitimately be used for. You can’t found a non-profit for running e.g. a school and use it later for selling cars.
In contrast the objects for a company with shareholders is to provide a return on the investment for those shareholders, no more and no less. As such, for-profits do not need to provide any objects.
Articles of association are on the public record (you can pay Companies House £1 to send them to you). Naturally I’ve uploaded Foam Kernow’s articles on github :) These are based on the UK’s model articles – the main addition are the objects, which are a distilled version from Foam Brussels’ charter:
The objects for which the Company is established are to:
1.11 promote art, science and education by identifying and strengthening the areas that connect them;
1.12 embrace cultural change;
1.13 foster interdependence;
1.14 cultivate the beginner’s mind;
1.15 respecting and sharing sources;
1.16 empower participants to translate an idea into practice;
1.17 foster open source culture; and
1.18 embrace creative conflict.
So in a nutshell, the objects provide a publicly stated purpose and philosophy, such as this, for everybody involved.
Object 1.11 (the numbering scheme irks me as a programmer) was added in order to underscore the arts/sciences purpose of foam. This meant we could apply for an exemption to drop ‘limited’ from the end of the name, in order to highlight our independent research focus.
Memorandum of Association
The memorandum is an agreement between the individuals founding the organisation – the share of capital (in a for-profit) or the share of liability (in a non-profit), the names and addresses – and eye colour, interestingly of all involved.
The standard corporate structure in a company limited by guarantee is a democratic one consisting of two levels. ‘Directors’ of a company take day to day decisions and responsibility while ‘Members’ of the company have voting powers on important decisions and have the ability to remove or add new directors. This structure is very flexible, neither directors nor members need to be employed by the company, and alternatively it’s also possible for a company to only have a single director/member who is also employed on the payroll. This is how foam kernow started, and bizarrely I had to supply minutes to Companies House for a meeting with myself to appoint a new director.
There is quite a lot of confusing terminology around all this, for example an ‘executive’ director is one that is employed by the company (also known as a CEO) while a ‘non-executive’ is one that is otherwise external to the company.
As an aside, some companies are wholly owned by their employees, where all people on the payroll are made members and given votes automatically – however this is not the norm.
A short update on the things currently going on at Foam Kernow alongside the stuff I’ve been blogging about lately. We are near completion of a new version of the butterfly hunting game – this time being developed for the National Museum of Natural History in Paris, where it will be a citizen science exhibit to collect data on visitor’s perceptions of the wing patterns. A brand new Open Sauces web tool is under development as well, much conversation concerning database models for cuisines, menus, recipes, ingredients and flavours.
We’re planning our first ever biohacking workshop, in Cornwall led by the London Biohackspace. As part of that we need to construct a bunch of high power LEDs to expose yeastograms to UV light to create pictures. With all the precautions required for this (you don’t want to get too close to them), it seems like we’re constructing a giant space laser.
The beginning of the year has also been about moving long running projects on to their next stage. Mongoose 2000 has now had 4 months of parallel data collection in Uganda at the same time as their old system, and they agree by 98%, which is good enough for them to move completely over to the Raspberry Pi and android tablets. We’ve also incorporated a ton of feedback from this testing time. Symbai also has been improved ready for it’s next outing to India in May, mostly synchronisation fixes as this system needs to sync photographs and audio files as well. Also a bit of in depth reading about SQLite’s query planner has led to a dramatic speedup for both these applications.
Also in the workshop vein – this year’s Raspberry Pi Minecraft hacking workshop will be happening on April 2nd at dBsMusic in Cornwall College. Bring on the networked mayhem!
We’re starting construction of version 2 of the flotsam tangible programming device, specialised to weaving – and henceforth known as the ‘pattern matrix’. This will be tested during May at our upcoming performance/workshop/residency at Munich’s Museum für Abgüsse Klassischer Bildwerke (Museum of Casts of Classical Sculpture) with the Coding weaves project, and then for later use in Cornwall (more on that part soon).
The first thing we are exploring is removing the need for physical plugs – although I like them a lot, they are problematic for people as it takes time to learn how to align the blocks in the current prototype. In order to get around this, and maintain the cheapness of the programming blocks themselves we’re looking at using magnetism to represent information. We can use blocks with no connections, painted white and black on different sides and detect their orientation and position via a magnet in the centre.
Initially this idea came from thinking about reed switches with Francesca, and playing with mobile phone magnetometers on the UAV project led to us investigating Hall effect sensors (the building blocks of magnetometers). We had a bit of a testing workshop with Andy from the Falmouth University makernow fablab who are helping with construction of this project.
Hall effect sensors allow us to detect the polarity of nearby magnetic fields – and seem to be restricted enough in range that they can be very precise. Even with fairly weak magnets we found we could put the sensors right next to each other (see above) and still determine the difference between two opposed or aligned fields.
For the warp/weft weave pattern structure we only need 1 bit of information to be detected, but for future extensibility for the yarn colour programming setup it’s important to be able to read more (4 bits are encoded in the flotsam blocks).
Our plan is to try putting 4 sensors in a square which adds an intriguing possibility of rotating the blocks to change their meaning, as well as flipping them. The great thing is that this gets very close to tablet weaving in terms of the notation and the actions required. We can also represent all 16 states with only 4 blocks – if negative is 0 and positive is 1, and we read the code as binary clockwise from top left:
Starting state [0,1,5,6]
- - + - + - - +
- - - - - + - +
Rotate clockwise [0,2,10,12]
- - - + - + - -
- - - - + - + +
Horizontal flip [15,11,10,12]
+ + + + - + - -
+ + + - + - + +
Rotate counter-clockwise [15,13,5,6]
+ + + - + - - +
+ + + + - + - +
Vertical flip [0,4,5,6]
- - - - + - - +
- - - + - + - +
Here is Andy’s design for the PCB we’ll use under each of the 25 board locations:
Over the last six months I’ve been taking a crash course in company formation, treating it like any other investigation into a strange and esoteric technology. Last year I registered FoAM Kernow as a UK non profit organisation in the mould of FoAM Brussels. Starting off with absolutely no knowledge at all (but with a lot of help from FoAM’s wider friends and relations) I found a lot of confusing fragments of information online so I thought I’d document the process here as much as I can. It’s important to state that I’m not a lawyer or professional in these matters at all, so no substitute for proper legal advice – and any corrections would be most welcome.
What does non-profit mean?
A non-profit company is simply one that is not allowed to have shareholders. A for-profit company can pay a set of people who own shares part of the profits called dividends. In a non-profit the money outflow is more tightly controlled and can only go to employees or to pay costs for the company. Contrary to popular belief, there is no limitation on the size of the company, how much it pays employees or the money it makes in total (there are some very large non-profits out there).
In place of shareholders, a non-profit is “limited by guarantee” – a more legally correct term for this type of organisation. Individuals guarantee a set amount against liability (debts). The default is a whopping £1 each.
As far as I understand it “limited by shares” and “limited by guarantee” are the two main different types of organisation in the UK. There are also a cluster of other subcategories: charities, community interest groups, co-operatives and social enterprises for example. These are a little bit more fuzzy it seems, but they tend to be different flavours of limited by guarantee companies with more legal paperwork (especially in the case of charities) to determine the precise purpose and role of the organisation, and ultimately access to profits – what the money can and can’t be used for.
Why form a company?
Having a legal entity with which to work from rather than being an individual (sole trader) is better for larger projects, and bigger institutions are happier collaborating with legal entities. This is partly a matter of indirection or abstraction, e.g. if I get hit by the proverbial bus, the legal entity continues to exist. More importantly, it means multiple people can work together as part of a legal structure with a publicly stated set of shared values (called the articles of association). There is also a well established democratic process to make organisational decisions (more on that later).
Sole traders on the other hand can employ as many people as they want, but the structure would be fixed as a simple hierarchy – and the organisation has no legally defined purpose. Also things like insurance are different, but I won’t get into that yet!
Why form a non profit company?
A non-profit fits well with the goals of FoAM. Generally we focus on exploring ways of doing independent research, we are strict on non-exclusive rights to our work (participating in free software and creative commons) and finding a place between arts and sciences. None of this requires conventional fund raising by selling shares.
Another big reason is an issue of trust. We work mainly with people in spheres of arts and research – and it turns out a lot of people don’t want to work with companies that are run on a for-profit basis. In fact I would go so far as to say that some of the most interesting people we work with are wary of this. There is a somewhat justifiable worry that their contribution may be exploited via pressures to make a return on investments made by third parties.
The downsides are mainly tax related – for-profit companies can use dividends to pay investors (who can be employees too) which are not taxed – this is a very common practice. Usually small companies employ people at the minimum taxable wage then pay the rest by dividends. There is no way to do this with a company limited by guarantee – all payments to people need to be accounted for as normal employment or subcontracting and subject to income tax. It turns out that there are other upsides to being non-profit that may counteract this in the long run as you get treated differently in some contexts (e.g banking). For the next installment (if I find time!) I’d like to talk more about that and the formation process too…
View of ground control from a OnePlus phone mounted on a Y6 UAV:
A report from the first flight test of the new UAV android software with the Exeter University UAV science group. We had two aircraft, a nice battle hardened fixed wing RC plane and a very futuristic 3D robotics RTF Y6. We also had two phones for testing, an old cheap Acer Liquid Glow E330 (the old lobster phone) and a new, expensive Oneplus One A0001. Both were running the same version (0.2) of the visual programming toolkit which I quietly released yesterday.
Here is the high-tech mounting solution for the RC aircraft. There were a lot of problems with the Acer, I’m not sure if the GPS triggering was happening too fast or if there is a problem with this particular model of phone but the images appear to be corrupted and overwriting each other (none of this happened in prior testing of course :) Despite this, there were some Ok shots, but a lot of vibration from the petrol motor during acceleration.
We tried two types of programs running on the phones, one triggered photos by a simple timer, the other used GPS distance, altitude and camera angle in order to calculate an overlap coverage. Both seems to work well, although I need to go through the sensor data for each image to check the coverage by positioning the images using the GPS. One thing I was worried about was the pitch and yaw of the aircraft – but with the Y6 this was extremely stable, along with the altitude too, which can be controlled automatically at a set height.
The vibration seemed less of a problem on the Y6, but on one of the flights the power button got pressed bringing up the keylock screen which annoyingly prevents the camera from working. We did however capture lots of sensor data – accelerometer, magnetometer, orientation and gravity with no problems on the Acer.
The OnePlus phone worked pretty flawlessly overall, and we left it till last as it’s a bit less expendable! It’s possible to mount phones easily underneath the batteries on the Y6 without the need for tape, which looks a bit more professional:
We still have problems with vibration, which seems to cause the bands of fuzziness (see the bottom and top photos) so things to look at next include:
- Cushioning for the phone (probably just a small bit of foam).
- Reproducing and fixing the Acer camera problem.
- Some kind of audio indication from the phone that the camera is working etc.
- Try again to lock the keys on the phone or override the key lock screen.
- More camera controls, override and lock the exposure.
- Output raw files instead of running the jpeg compression in the air! This seems to take longer than actually taking the photo, and we don’t care about space on the sdcard.
Some screenshots of the UAV livecoding visual programming language. Weather being on our side, we’re planning some test flights later this week! The first program uses GPS to take photos with an overlap of 50% at 300 metres altitude, based on the vertical camera angle as reported from the device. It assumes the the flight orientation is level:
The blocks are all drag and drop and get converted into Scheme code which is run by a modified tinyscheme interpreter. The code can be saved and loaded, and I’m planning to make it possible for people to share code via email.
This is a simpler program which takes a photo every 3 seconds and records a handful of sensor data to the database:
At the bottom you can see a squashed camera preview – I’ve tried various approaches (hiding, scaling to 0 pixels etc) but android requires that there is a preview somewhere in order to take a photo properly. You can view the recorded data on the device too, for checking. There is also a ‘flight mode’ which locks and turns off the screen, and ignores all button events. On some phones you need to take out the battery to stop the program running but unfortunately on others you can still use the power button to close the program.